The atmospheric energy in a model can be stored in the form of potential energy and kinetic energy, which can be described with energetics. The Lorenz atmospheric energy cycle describes the general circulation from a perspective that emphasizes energy transformation - how the incoming solar radiation generates potential energy that is converted to kinetic energy and is finally lost to frictional dissipation. These statistical characteristics of the global atmospheric energy cycle are useful for validation of general circulation models since they constitute constraints that must be satisfied.

The LC-LRFMME developed its model assessment system based on balance equation. We calculated the energy cycle and the connecting links between the various energy forms. A schematic box diagram of energy cycle is provided in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic box diagram of the energy cycle in the atmosphere showing the rates of generation, conversion, and dissipation of the various forms of energy.

*P*: mean available potential energy_{M}*P*: eddy available potential energy, which is composed of_{E}*P*and_{SE}*P*_{TE}*P*: stationary eddy available potential energy_{SE}*P*: transient eddy available potential energy_{TE}*K*: mean kinetic energy_{M}*K*: eddy kinetic energy, which is composed of_{E}*K*and_{TE}*K*_{SE}*K*: transient eddy kinetic energy_{TE}*K*: stationary eddy kinetic energy_{SE}*C(A,B)*: conversion rate of A to B

The balance equations for the four basic forms of energy are summarized as follows:

Where, *C*, *G*, *D*, means conversion, generation and dissipation rates respectively, and the eddy available potential energy *P _{E}* and the eddy kinetic energy

The mean available potential energy is converted into eddy available potential energy by the growing baroclinic disturbances. Some of the eddy available potential energy may be dissipated by a greater loss of infrared radiation to space in warm rather than in cold air and by a similar heat exchange with the earth's surface. However, latent heating is believed to surpass these effects, leading to a small positive generation of *P _{E}*. The eddy available potential energy